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It may surprise you to discover that Brazil covers 3 million square miles, which is almost half of South America. It is the fifth largest country in the world and stretches for about 2800 miles. The capital is Brasilia, with around 2 million residents although it is outdone in size by Sao Paulo which has 18 million residents and Rio de Janeiro with 5 million. Brazil is the only country in South America to have Portuguese as its official language.