Iran, formerly known as Persia, is in western Asia and has over 70 million people. The capital city of Tehran is a surprisingly modern city with many museums, palaces and bazaars. The National Jewels Treasury includes a jewel-encrusted 200-year old throne and the world’s largest pink square-cut diamond. Iran is better known for its religion and politics rather than for its amazing historical sites. Ancient ruins litter the desert around Shiraz including Pasargadae, the capital of Ancient Persia.